Stratum Corneum Là Gì

Skin is vital phệ our overall health cùng wellbeing. As well as acting as the toàn thân toàn thân’s first line of defense against bacteria và viruses, healthy skin mathienmaonline.vnains the balance of fluids và helps bự regulate toàn thân body toàn thân temperature. It is highly sensitive sầu, recognising the sofkiểm tra touch as well as pain. As our largest cùng most visible organ, covering nearly 2m² với making up almost a sixth of our toàn thân toàn thân weight, skin condition can also have sầu a significant impact on our self-esteem.

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A constantly changing, dynamic organ, skin consists of three main layers – the epidermis, the dermis cùng the subcutis – each of which is made up of several sub-layers. Skin appendages –such as follicles với sebaceous với sweat glands – also play various roles in its overall function.


The skin consists of three layers: epidermis, dermis với subcutis. Epidermis

As the outermost layer that we see và touch, the epidermis protects us from toxins, bacteria với fluid loss. It consists of 5 sub-layers of keratinocyte cells. These cells, produced in the innermost basal layer, migrate up towards the surface of the skin. As they vày, they mature với undergo a series of changes. It is this process, known as keratinisation (or cornification), that makes each of the sub-layers distinct.

Basal layer (or stratum basale): The innermost layer where keratinocyte cells are produced. Prickle layer (or stratum spinosum): Keratinocytes produce keratin (protein fibres) cùng become spindle-shaped. Granular layer (stratum granulosum): Keratinisation begins – cells produce hard granules và, as they push upwards, these granules change keratin cùng epidermal lipids. Clear layer (stratum lucidium): Cells are tightly compressed, flattened và indistinguishable from one another. Horny layer (or stratum corneum): The outermost layer of the epidermis with, on average, about trăng tròn sub-layers of flattened, dead cells depending on where on the body body toàn thân the skin is. These dead cells are shed regularly in a process known as desquamation. The horny layer is also trang chủ Khủng the sweat glvà pores cùng the openings of the sebaceous glands.


The outermost skin layer is known as the horny layer và is where dead cells are regularly shed.

The cells in the horny layer are bound together by epidermal lipids. These lipids are essential for healthy skin: they create its protective barrier và bind in moisture. When lipids are missing, skin can becomedry với may feel tight cùng rough.

The epidermis is covered by an emulsion of water với lipids (fats) known as the hydrolipid film. This film, mathienmaonline.vnained by secretions from the sweat với sebaceous glands, helps mập keep our skin supple cùng acts as a further barrier against bacteria cùng fungi.

The water part of this film, known as the protective acid mantle contains:

Lactic acid cùng various amino acids from sweat. Free fatty acids from sebum. Amino acids, pyrrolidine carboxylic acid cùng other natural moisturising factors (NMF’s) which are mainly by-products of the keratinsation process.


Inside the horny layer cells are bound together by lipids, which are essential in keeping skin healthy.

This protective acid mantle gives healthy skin its slightly acidic pH of between 5.4 và 5.9. The igiảm giá khuyến mãi environment for:

Skin-friendly microorganisms (known as skin flora) bự thrive cùng harmful microorganisms to be destroyed. The formation of epidermal lipids. The enzymes that drive the process of desquamation. The horny layer Khủng be able phệ repair itself when damaged.

Over most parts of the toàn thân toàn thân, the epidermis is only about 0.1 mm in total, though it is considerably thinner on skin around the eyes (0.05mm) cùng considerably thicker (between 1 và 5mm) on the soles of the feet. Lớn find out more read understanding skin on different parts of the toàn thân toàn thân và how male và female skin differs.


The dermis consists of a thichồng upper layer on the subcutis và a wave-lượt thích lower layer on the epidermis. The dermis is the thichồng, elastic but firm middle layer of the skin, made up of 2 sub-layers: The lower layer (or stratum reticulare): a deep, thiông chồng area, which forms a fluid border with the subcutis. The upper layer (or stratum papillare): forms a defined, wave-lượt thích border with the epidermis.

The main structural components of the dermis are collagene với elastin, connective sầu tissues, which give sầu strength và flexibility và are the vital components of healthy, young-looking skin. These fibres are embedded in a gel-like substance (containing hyaluronic acid), which has a high capacity for water-binding cùng helps to mathienmaonline.vnain the volume of our skin.

Lifestyle và external factors such as the sun và changes in temperature have an impact of collaren và elastin levels với on the structure of the surrounding substance. As we age, our natural production of collagene cùng elastin slows down cùng the skin’s ability béo bind in water decreases. Skin looks less toned cùng wrinkles appear. Read more in factors that influence the skin, how sun affects skin với skin ageing.

The dermis plays a key role in protecting the body body toàn thân from external influences với irritants as well as feeding the outermost layers of skin from within:

Its thiông chồng, firm texture helps Khủng cushion external blows cùng, when damage occurs, it contains connective sầu tissues such as fibroblasts và mast cells that heal wounds. It is rich in blood vessels that nourish the epidermis while removing waste. The sebaceous glands (which deliver sebum or oil béo the surface of the skin) cùng the sweat glands (which deliver water cùng lactic acid béo the surface of the skin) are both located in the dermis. These fluids combine together to make up the hydrolipid film.

The dermis is also home page lớn:

Lymph vessels. Sensory receptors. Hair roots: the bulbous end of the hair shaft where hair is developed.


The dermis protects the body body toàn thân with its cushioning, its ability mập nourish với remove waste as well as its ability to sweat. Subcutis (or hypodermis)

The subcutis pads với insulates the body toàn thân body toàn thân cùng is trang chủ phệ fat cells, collagene fibres cùng blood vessels. The innermost layer of our skin stores energy while padding cùng insulating the toàn thân toàn thân. It is mainly composed of: Fat cells (adipocytes): clumped together in cushion-lượt thích groups. Special collagen fibres (called tissue septa or boundaries): loose và spongy connective tissues that hold the fat cells together. Blood vessels.

The number of fat cells contained in the subcutis differs on different parts of the toàn thân body. Moreover, the distribution of fat cells also differs between men cùng women, as does the structure of other parts of the skin.

Skin changes during a person’s lifetime. Lớn find out more read skin in different ages.

Skin is essential bự our overall health cùng wellbeing. Healthy skin acts as a barrier between the outside world với the inside of the toàn thân body với is our best cùng first defense against:

UV protection Cold, heat, water loss với radiation: As the outermost layer of the skin, the horny layer plays a pivotal role in protecting the body toàn thân from the environment cùng limiting the amount of water lost from the epidermis.It contains natural moisturising factors (NMFs) – derived from sebaceous oils of the horny layer including lactic acid và urea. These bind with water cùng help phệ mathienmaonline.vnain skin’s elasticity, firmness và suppleness. If these factors are depleted, skin loses moisture. When moisture of the horny layer falls lớn below 8 bự 10%, it becomes rough, dry cùng prone mập cracking.When the skin is regularly exposed lớn UV rays, melanin production in the basal layer increases, skin thickens mập protect itself với hyperpigmentation can occur. Read more in how sun affects skin.The fat cells in the subcutis also insulate the body body from cold với heat.

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Protective sầu barrier

Sensation Pressure, blows và abrasion: Again, the epidermis forms the first layer of defence. The fat cells in the subcutis provide padding that acts as a shoông chồng absorber, protecting the muscle tissue cùng fascia (the fibrous tissue that surrounds muscles) beneath.

When skin is exposed mập certain external stimuli the horny layer thickens, for example when calluses size on hands or feet that are exposed lớn repeated rubbing

Chemical substances: The buffer capađô thị of the hydrolipid film cùng the protective sầu acid mantle helps mập protect the body toàn thân body toàn thân from harmful alkaline based chemicals. Read more in factors that influence skin.

Bacteria và viruses: The horny layer of the epidermis với its protective sầu acid mantle size a barrier against bacteria và fungi. If something passes this first line of defense, skin’s immune system reacts.


Temperature regulation: Skin perspires lớn cool the toàn thân body toàn thân và contracts the vascular system in the dermis mập conserve sầu heat.

Control of sensation: Nerve endings in skin make it sensitive sầu mập pressure, vibration, touch, pain và temperature.

Regeneration: Skin is able phệ repair wounds.

Food source: The fat cells in the subcutis serve as important storage units for nutrients. When the toàn thân body toàn thân needs them, they pass the surrounding blood vessels và are carried lớn where they are required.

Skin also plays an important psychological role. As the most visible indicator of health, the condition of our skin affects how we feel about ourselves cùng how others view us. When skin is healthy và problem-không lấy phí it is able to vày its job better và we feel more comfortable cùng confident.

Healthy, problem-không tính tiền skin is even in colour, smooth in texture, well hydrated cùng appropriately sensitive to touch, pressure cùng temperature. When skin’s natural barrier is disturbed, its protective sầu function cùng healthy appearance are compromised:

It becomes increasingly sensitive to external influences (such as sun với temperature changes) và is particularly prone béo infection.

Infected skin can become inflamed as inflammatory immune cells move in mập try với repair the damaged barrier cùng heal the infection. In the case of conditions such asAtopic Dermatitis với an itchy scalp, speciacác mục treatment is often needed Khủng break the vicious cycle of repeated itching cùng further infection cùng Khủng help regenerate skin’s natural barrier.

Skin has variousregeneration với repair mechanisms. The basal layer ensures a steady renewal of the epidermis, through continual cell division:

If an injury is confined béo the uppermost skin layer, the damage (known as erosion) can heal without scarring. If the damage reaches the dermis và the basal membrane is affected (e.g. an ulcer) then scarring normally occurs.

Wound-healingfollows several consecutive stages:

Coagulating blood forms a membrane with a hard surface that sticks béo the wound (a crust or scab). Dead với damaged cells và their connective tissues are broken down với dissolved by enzymes. Cells that protect the body toàn thân body toàn thân by digesting harmful bacteria cùng dead cells become active sầu. Lymphatic fluids flow the wound. New cells – including capillary buds, connective sầu tissues với collagene fibres – form in a process known as epithelisation.

This latter stage can be stimulated với supported by the application of topical products that assist healing (e.g. dexpanthenol).

Read more about the factors that influence skin health cùng about how to keep skin healthy infactors that influence skin,caring for skin on the bodyanda daily skincare routine for the face.

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